1 a : the fruit or seed of plants of the legume family (such as peas or beans) used for food. legume meaning: 1. a plant that has its seeds in a pod, such as the bean or pea 2. a plant that has its seeds in a…. In food science, though, it is often regarded as a vegetable — a vegetable crop, in particular. The legume family is comprised of the subfamilies (1) Caesalpinioideae, (2) Mimosoideae, and (3) Faboideae (syn. [32][33], Sixty-eighth session of the United Nations General Assembly, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "Genetic diversity patterns and domestication origin of soybean", "Nutrition facts for Chickpeas (garbanzo beans, bengal gram), mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt, 100 g, USDA Nutrient Database, version SR-21", "Resistant starch: promise for improving human health", "A perspective on vegetarian dietary patterns and risk of metabolic syndrome", "Effect of dietary pulses on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials", "Effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials", "The Nitrogen cycle and Nitrogen fixation", "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase", "Absolute diversification rates in angiosperm clades", "International Year of Pulses 2016 - IYP2016", "Legume biology: the basis for crop improvement", Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, An Essay on Abstinence from Animal Food, as a Moral Duty, Moral Inquiries on the Situation of Man and of Brutes, Thirty-nine Reasons Why I Am a Vegetarian, Why We Love Dogs, Eat Pigs, and Wear Cows, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Legume&oldid=992407256, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Infestation of plants starts from germination through to harvest, and they can destroy an entire crop in early stage. pea - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. Grain legumes[7] are cultivated for their seeds, which are used for human and animal consumption or for the production of oils for industrial uses. ... Pisum sativum, of the legume family. Due to the years of research done by Henry Ford, the domestic soybean oil industry was born. Leguminous is an adjective used to describe plants in the legume family, which includes the plants that produce some beans, peas, and lentils. Rhizobium can be pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic. There are about 18,000 species of legumes around the world. In many traditional and organic farming practices, crop rotation involving legumes is common. Factors to which this is attributed are larger consumption, faster digestion and higher feed conversion rate. [iii] The lines of dehiscence run along both the margins. Hence, legumes are among the best sources of plant protein. raw or insufficiently cooked red kidney beans. Based on this definition, pulses include the various edible seeds, e.g. The word legume most commonly refers to the edible seed … Common hosts for this pest are fathen, thistle and dock. 1. Pulsecanada.Com. [22], Legumes are widely distributed as the third-largest land plant family in terms of number of species, behind only the Orchidaceae and Asteraceae, with about 751 genera and some 19,000 known species,[23][24] constituting about seven percent of flowering plant species. https://doi.org/10.1006/rwgn.2001.1642, Legumes and Pulses. Stem nematodes are very widespread but will be found more frequently in areas where host plants are grown. A legume is a simple, dry fruit contained within a shed or a pod. Lentils, soy, and clover are all legumes. Because legumes are so varied, each one has a unique nutritional profile. This paper is a product of the Legume Phylogeny Working Group, who discussed, debated and agreed on the classification of the Leguminosae presented here, and are listed in alphabetical order. Legumes are grown agriculturally, primarily for human consumption, for livestock forage and silage, and as soil-enhancing green manure. Mimosoideae are smaller plants with flowers that are not in clusters, coloured stamens. [27], A common pest of grain legumes that is noticed in the tropical and subtropical Asia, Africa, Australia and Oceania are minuscule flies that belong to the family Agromyzidae, dubbed "bean flies". [25][26], Seed viability decreases with longer storage time. Leguminosae is also called the legume family. Legume a member of the pea family (Fabaceae) that possesses root nodules containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria. (Ref.5). Also excluded are seeds that are mainly grown for oil extraction (oilseeds like soybeans and peanuts), and seeds which are used exclusively for sowing forage (clovers, alfalfa). noun topics legume -noun See definition in Dictionary biology seed that grows in pod. Characteristics : [i] The fruit is dry and many seeded. [1670–80; < French légume vegetable < Latin legūmen pulse, a leguminous plant, derivative of legere to gather] Prior to World War II, 40% of cooking oil was imported into the US. Well-known legumes include alfalfa, clover, beans, peas, chickpeas, lentils, lupins, mesquite, carob, soybeans, peanuts, and tamarind. Peas, beans, lentils, and peanuts are all dicots with flowers that grow in clusters. In the soil, the amino acids are converted to nitrate (NO−3), making the nitrogen available to other plants, thereby serving as fertilizer for future crops.[19][20]. These two species' characteristics vary in morphology and ruggedness.[17]. Two legumes used for pasture with cross-pollination are: Desmodium intortum and Desmodium uncinatum. Biology Dictionaries. They are an excellent example of the way species' gene p.. Peas and beans get by with more than a little help from friends, Increased CO2 Levels Are Mixed Blessing For Agriculture, Stoichiometric response of nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing dicots to manipulations of CO2, nitrogen, and diversity, Folates more effective in limiting Alzheimer’s disease risk than antioxidants, other nutrients, Replacing Some Carbohydrates With Protein And Unsaturated Fat May Enhance Heart Health Benefits. Any of a large family (Leguminosae syn. Concentrating on his company, from 1932 to 1933 he invested over 1 million dollars in research on soybeans. [30], Abiotic problems include nutrient deficiencies, (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, copper, magnesium, manganese, boron, zinc), pollutants (air, water, soil, pesticide injury, fertilizer burn), toxic concentration of minerals, and unfavorable growth conditions. For that reason, they play a key role in crop rotation. (Ref.1) Many of these species are cultivated and harvested for human and livestock consumption. Phaseolus plant produces phytohaemagglutinin (lectins) that is extracted for its erythrocyte and leukocyte agglutination and mitogenic effects. Ammonification definition is - the act or process of ammoniating. Read it to get more info on X and Y chromosom.. Homeostasis is essential to maintain conditions within the tolerable limits. These bacteria have the special ability of fixing nitrogen from atmospheric, molecular nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3). A legume is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or the fruit or seed of such a plant. Well-known legumes include alfalfa, clover, beans, peas, chickpeas, lentils, lupins, mesquite, carob, soybeans, peanuts, and tamarind. However, the autogamous annual Stylosanthes humilis proved otherwise by adapting in response to changing conditions during an experiment, and was found to be composed of several genotypes showing heterogeneity. Example: Calotropis. Soybeans are widely used to feed animals. All proteins contain nitrogenous amino acids. Otherwise, the body will fail to function p.. Lotic communities have conditions that are rather harsh for typical plants. Legume or Pod: Legume develops from a superior, monocarpellary, unilocular ovary. Pea weevil and bean weevil damage leaf margins leaving characteristics semi-circular notches. The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase. Fallow/green manure legume species are cultivated to be tilled back into the soil in order to exploit the high levels of captured atmospheric nitrogen found in the roots of most legumes. legume definition: 1. a plant that has its seeds in a pod, such as the bean or pea 2. a plant that has its seeds in a…. It may be difficult to count the number of floral parts, but they do appear in multiples of four or five. SUMMARY Bacteria belonging to the genera Rhizobium , Mesorhizobium , Sinorhizobium , Bradyrhizobium , and Azorhizobium (collectively referred to as rhizobia) grow in the soil as free-living organisms but can also live as nitrogen-fixing symbionts inside root nodule cells of legume plants. These are grown mainly for their protein, vegetable oil and ability to uphold soil fertility. Faboideae is the largest subfamily of legumes. 2. the pod, bean, or pea of such a plant, usu. Numerous legumes farmed for this purpose include Leucaena, Cyamopsis, and Sesbania species. 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