In France, pre-eminent humanist Guillaume Budé (1467–1540) applied the philological methods of Italian humanism to the study of antique coinage and to legal history, composing a detailed commentary on Justinian's Code. The printing press helped spread humanist ideas from their origins in Italy to the north of Europe. It was a huge change to switch from a religion based society in the Middle Ages to a people based society in the Renaissance. McManus, Stuart M. "Byzantines in the Florentine Polis: Ideology, Statecraft and Ritual during the Council of Florence". Humanists believed that the individual encompassed "body, mind, and soul" and learning was very much a part of edifying all aspects of the human. In addition, his Decameron (Ten Days), a collection of tales compiled between c. 1348 and 1353 CE, appealed to later humanists because it dealt with everyday human experiences in great detail. Rhetoric - another term that modernity has twisted out of all recognition from its original meaning - was then the art of presenting eloquent argument. Looking at these works as a whole, one idea which especially interested Renaissance thinkers was virtus (virtue or excellence) and civic duty. Another characteristic of Renaissance humanism was its consonance with the values and doctrines of the Church. Renaissance humanism was a response to what came to be depicted by later whig historians as the "narrow pedantry" associated with medieval scholasticism. The Library of Congress.  Epicurus's unacceptable doctrine that pleasure was the highest good "ensured the unpopularity of his philosophy". Humanism, with its reverence for classical authors and what exactly a knowledge of antiquity can teach us found expression in the performance arts, notably in the plays of William Shakespeare (1564-1616 CE) who was interested in characters that could reveal the breadth and depth of the human experience.  Humanists sought to create a citizenry able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity and thus capable of engaging in the civic life of their communities and persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions. Art was one of the parts where its greatest effects were seen. They were, too, collectors of ancient art such as sculpture, sarcophagi, relief panels, and coins. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The renaissance advanced artistic techniques and experimented with new styles and subjects. A defender of the Catholic Church against the Reformists, he famously wrote Utopia in 1516 CE about an ideal society set on an imaginary island. Characteristics of the Florentine Renaissance The rinascimento in Florence was marked by two major characteristics: humanism , which enriched art not only on the theoretical level but also by introducing classical thought; and research into geometrical perspective , of great importance in Early Renaissance painting and architecture up to 1600. In the north of Europe, humanist scholars were more interested in religious reforms compared to elsewhere, hence their brand of humanism is often called Religious Humanism. Contemporary use of the term humanism is consistent with the historical use prominent in that period, while Renaissance humanism is a retronymused to distinguish it from later humanist developments. https://www.ancient.eu/Renaissance_Humanism/. The writings of Dante, and particularly the doctrines of Petrarch and humanists like Machiavelli, emphasized the virtues of intellectual freedom and individual expression. Renaissance humanism was a revival in the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. The Renaissance replaced religion and God as the central point (theocentrism) prevailing throughout the Middle Ages to grant it to the human being. Someone who had a humanist education might be a Catholic or a Protestant, for example, and many students went on to study very different branches of thought such as theology, law, or medicine. Just as humanist writers knew full well the powerful effect of their words, so, too, artists knew the power they had to create a lasting aesthetic impression on the viewer. It's no surprise that a rise in humanism—i.e., the basic belief that humans are good and have got something to offer—did funny things to religion. Portraits, for example, might include a classical book next to the sitter to emphasise their humanist tendencies. Many worked for the Catholic Church and were in holy orders, like Petrarch, while others were lawyers and chancellors of Italian cities, and thus had access to book copying workshops, such as Petrarch's disciple Salutati, the Chancellor of Florence. The unashamedly humanistic flavor of classical writings had a tremendous impact on Renaissance scholar. Ancient thinkers were directly represented in art, perhaps most famously in the School of Athens fresco in the Vatican by Raphael (1483-1520 CE). All three of these writers promoted the use of the Tuscan vernacular (at least in poetical works), and this eventually led to the dominance of Latin being challenged. All its distinct capabilities, talents, worries, problems, possibilities—was the center of interest work the. Stuck to the subjective and private experiences of each opinion opinions is one ’ s problems ( and a! The scene Epicurus 's unacceptable doctrine that pleasure was the answer to the human experience their! 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